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Athos Holy Mount

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843 The monks living on Mount Athos send representatives to Constantinople to celebrate the restoration of the veneration of icons.
883 Athos receives its first imperial privilege from Basil I of Macedon.
908 Athos becomes independent of the coenobia outside the peninsula. The existence of a Protos, leader and representative of all the monks, is attested for the first time.
941–2 The first known royal grant to the monks of Mount Athos is made by Romanus I Lacapenus: one gold coin per year for each monk.
943 The authorities determine the boundary between Ierissos and the monastic community of Athos.
957 St Athansius goes to Mount Athos and there builds the monastery that will later become the Great Lavra, the first coenobium. The work is financed by the plunder from the Cretan campaign (961) and donations from Emperor Nicephorus Phocas.
972 Emperor John Tzimisces and the monks of Mount Athos sign the first charter of the monastic community. Known as the Tragos, it officially established the coenobian system on the peninsula, alongside the hermitages.
1045 Emperor Constantine IX Monomachus signs the second charter, in which Athos is termed the 'Holy Mountain' for the first time. There are three large coenobia: the Great Lavra, Iviron, and Vatopedi.
pre–1142 A monastery inhabited by Russian monks is founded.
1198 Chelandari Monastery is made over to the Serbs. In the thirteenth century Zographou Monastery will be occupied exclusively by Bulgarians.
1205 Mount Athos is briefly occupied by the members of the Fourth Crusade.
1307–9 Mount Athos is sacked and ravaged by the Catalans.
1312 Andronicus II Palaeologus and Patriarch Niphon legislate that the election of the Protos shall be ratified by the Patriarch. Meanwhile, select Athonite monks are becoming adepts of Hesychasm, a mystic practice which aspires to achieve direct contact with God through prayer and the vision of the Divine Uncreated Light.
1345 The Serb ruler Stephen Dushan seizes Serres and Mount Athos, and visits the latter with his family.
1371 The Byzantines return to Eastern Macedonia (and Mount Athos) after defeating the Serbs at Maritsa.
1374 Alexius III Comnenus, Emperor of Trebizond, builds Dionysiou Monastery.
1383 The Ottoman Turks seize Mount Athos, with which they have had earlier contacts. The first brief period of Ottoman rule begins.
1403 After the Ottomans' defeat at Ankara, Mount Athos is restored by treaty to Byzantine sovereignty.
1406 Manuel II Palaeologus issues the third charter of Mount Athos.
1424 An Athonite delegation pays homage to Sultan Murad in Adrianople. The second, long, period of Ottoman rule begins.
ca. 1498 The so-called 'Charter of Manuel II Palaeologus of 1394' is drawn up.
1541 Patriarch Jeremiah I founds Stavronikita Monastery.
1569 Sultan Selim II confiscates the immovable property of all the monasteries in the Otttoman Empire.
1593 The last reference to the institution of the Protos as the Athonites' supreme administrative and spiritual authority. The Great Council (Megali Synaxis) at Karyes is established as the supreme authority in charge of Athonite affairs.
1749 The Athonite School of Theology is founded.
1754 The beginning of a spiritual revival led by a group of monks from the Skete of St Anne.
1783 The charter of Patriarch Gabriel IV is issued.
May 1821 The Greek War of Independence is declared at Karyes.
1860 The Ottoman government tries to intervene in the internal administration of Mount Athos with a constitution drawn up by Husni Pasha, Governor of Thessaloniki.
1863 The government of Alexander Kuza confiscates Romania's dependencies.
1873 The Russian government slashes the income of the dependencies of Bessarabia and the Caucasus.
1877 Patriarch Joachim II publishes the Regulations of the Monasteries of Mount Athos.
1912 The new General Regulations for Mount Athos, drawn up by Patriarch Joachim III and the Athonite monks, are ratified.
1912 November Mount Athos is liberated by the Greek fleet.
1913 The Athonite monks pass a resolution declaring the administrative autonomy of the monastic republic within the boundaries of the Greek state.
1926 The existing constitution of Mount Athos is passed.

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