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Athos Holy Mount


acephalous: (of a manuscript) lacking its beginning
aedicula: an ornament in the form of a shrine with columns and arches used to frame the Eusebian Canon tables (q.v.)
aer: a large veil used to cover either the chalice or the paten
ga: a governor
Akathist: see Akathistos Hymn
Akathistos Hymn: a hymn of twenty-four strophes (oikoi) sung, all standing, on the Saturday of the fifth week in Lent, in honour of the Virgin Mary
Anapesson: a representation of the young Christ asleep
anastasimatarion: a codex containing troparia (q.v.) on the theme of the Resurrection (Anastasis) of Christ
anchorite: a hermit who withdraws from the world to live in solitude (from the Greek anachoretes 'one who withdraws')
antidoron: bread blessed but not consecrated or consumed during the Eucharist; instead, it is distributed after the service as a sign of their participation in the blessing to worshippers who did not communicate; bread of fellowship

antimension: a decorated rectangular cloth (usually linen), used in place of a communion table either where there is no altar at all (on board ship or in the open air, for instance), or where the altar is not consecrated (e.g. in a chapel or hermitage)
apolytikion: a dismissal hymn
Apostolika: the icons of Christ and the Apostles on the epistyle of the chancel screen; also used of that part of the screen to which they belong
arcosolium: an arched tomb, hewn out of rock in the early Christian period, constructed in the wall of a church in the middle and late Byzantine period
Asia Minor motif: an ornament usually seen on the front of the epistyle of a Byzantine chancel screen, consisting of coupled colonnettes linked by arches at the top and enclosing stylised acanthus leaves
asper: a Turkish coin
asterisk: a star-shaped liturgical utensil used to cover the eucharistic elements lying in a paten and to guard them from contact with the first veil
Axion Esti: the miracle-working icon of the Virgin Mary kept in the sanctuary of the Church of the Protaton
Aydin: a fourteenth-century piratical Turkish emirate, based in Ephesus and Smyrna
Ban: the highest rank in the divan (q.v.) of Wallachia; the supreme governor of Oltenia (Wallachia Minor) or Krajova, with extensive judicial and military powers; a less important rank in Moldavia
ban (pl. bani): a Romanian coin; in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, one ban was equal to 1/112–1/135 of a thaler, 1/120–1/133 of a leon, 1/200 of an ughi (q.v.) Barlaam and Ioasaph: the two eponymous protagonists of the romance inspired by the life of Buddha; the book was formerly believed to have been composed by John of Damascus bead-and-reel: the pattern employed for the decoration of an astragal (a small moulding, circular in section)
bema: the sanctuary
bifolium: two leaves (four pages) formed by a single folded sheet of vellum or paper
Bostangi: one of the imperial guards of Turkey, whose duties included protecting the palace, rowing the Sultan's barge, and acting as imperial gardeners Bostangi-basi: captain of the Bostangi
boyar: a member of the aristocracy in Wallachia and Moldavia
Bulgarian orthography: historical Slavonic orthography which represents the rendering of the Slavonic dialect that evolved in Bulgarian literature in the Middle Ages; its main characteristic is that it mingles the nasals and semi-vowels of Old Slavonic.
Byzantine gold piece: a gold coin weighing about 4.55 grammes
camarash of the salt mines: official subordinate to the Great Treasurer in Moldavia and Wallachia
Canon tables: the ten tables of Eusebios of Caesarea (280-340) showing similar passages in the four Gospels; often accompanied by Eusebios' letter to Karpianos, in which he explains their use
Catalan Company: a Spanish mercenary force hired by the Byzantine Emperor Andronicus II (1282-1328) to fight against the Turks, but which turned against the Byzantines, marched through Macedonia and eastern central Greece laying the land waste as they went, and finally (1311) seized Athens, where they set up a state of their own cenobite monasticism: see coenobitic
champlevι: a relief technique in which the design is first incised in the surface of the marble and the ground is then cut away and filled with coloured mastic inlay
chancel screen: see iconostasis
chartophylax: a metropolitan ecclesiastical official with judicial responsibilities
chi-rho: a Christian monogram made from the first two letters of the Greek word for Christ (X and P)
chip-carving technique: a carving technique in which the decorative motifs are incised with sharp furrows, as in
crystal-cutting; the established international term is Kerbschnitt
chlamys: a short cloak
chrysobull: see golden bull
ciborium (also baldachin): a free-standing vaulted canopy supported by four columns (as that over the high altar in some churches)
clavus: a vertical stripe or band worn on the tunic
codex: a manuscript in the form of a modern book
coenobitic: the coenobitic rule insists on absolute spiritual obedience to a hegumen (q.v.), elected for life at a meeting of all monks of six years' standing in the monastery. Spiritually he is absolute, but in administrative matters he has the help of two or three trustees (epitropi) chosen by all, or by the Elders' Assembly (gerontia) of eight or ten senior monks. The monastery dispenses property, clothing, and food, and meals are eaten in common.
Comnene aspers: silver coins minted by the Emperors of Trebizond, known as the Grand Comneni
curopalates: a title awarded to the rulers of Georgia in the ninth century by the Byzantine emperors
Cyrillic script: the majuscule Byzantine script which the Slavs borrowed in the eleventh century, supplemented, and adapted to their own linguistic needs. The original Slavonic script, devised by St Cyril, is scientifically known as 'Glagolitic' (glagolica).
Deesis: a composition often found on the chancel screen and consisting of the Virgin Mary (left) and John the Baptist (right) interceding with Christ (centre) on behalf of humanity
despot: the highest title after that of emperor, usually given to the sons of the emperor, but occasionally to a foreign ruler
despotikes eikones: large icons on either side of the Royal Door (q.v.): Christ and St John the Baptist on the right; the Virgin Mary and the saint or mystery to which the church is dedicated on the left
diaconicon: a sacristy (q.v.) usually on the south side of the sanctuary
dikaios: a prior (elected) in charge of a skete
diptych: a two-leaved tablet containing on one part the names of living and on the other the names of dead persons commemorated at eucharistic services; the catalogue or list of such persons; a picture or series of pictures (as an altarpiece) painted or sculpted on two tablets connected by hinges
divan: the parliament of Moldavia or Wallachia
domestikos: the soloist in a Byzantine choir
double-headed eagle: the symbol of the emperors of the Byzantine Empire
doxastarion: a codex containing doxastika (sing. doxastikon, q.v.) set to unique melodies
doxastikon: a hymn commencing with the Lesser Doxology (Doxa Patri).
drungarius: a Byzantine official
ecclesiarches: the monk in charge of the church and the various religious services
ekloge sticherariou: a codex containing a selection of stichera idiomela (sing. sticheron idiomelon, q.v.)
encolpion: medallion bearing a sacred picture that is worn on the breast of a bishop
en pointe: (of wings) raised over the head
eparchos: by the fourteenth century a purely honorific title
ephoria (ephor): the custody and protection of a monastery, usually assigned to a high-ranking official
epigonation (or genual): a rhombic vestment usually of stiff material worn (at knee level) by a bishop or certain other ecclesiastical dignitaries as a sign of authority and rank
epimanikion (or maniple): a cuff worn as a liturgical vestment over each sleeve of the alb or tunic
epistasia: a four-member executive committee appointed annually by the Holy Community (q.v.)
epistatis: an administrative overseer
Epitaphios: the embroidered shroud used in re-enacting the burial of Christ on Good Friday; a portable canopied shrine containing an icon of the figure of the dead Christ laid out for burial
epitiritis: a monitor, the monk entrusted with keeping order
epitrachelion: a long narrow stole worn by bishops and priests
ιployιs: (of wings) outspread
epoptis: a state official in charge of supervising the Land Register and assessing the taxes to be paid by each land-owner
evangelion: a liturgical book containing the Gospel readings for all the movable and immovable feasts of the year, the eleven Gospels for orthros (q.v.), and readings for various other occasions
evangelistarion: a codex containing Gospel readings for Sundays
evangelistary: see evangelistarion
exapteryga: circular banners having on both their sides images of six-winged angels (seraphim) and fixed on poles
exarch: a bishop inferior to a patriarch and superior to a metropolitan; a deputy of a patriarch, usually holding the rank of bishop
foliate cross: a cross with a tendril or a tree (usually a cypress) sprouting from its base; primarily a symbol of salvation and life
folio: a leaf of a manuscript or book
gathering: a group of leaves bound together
glory: a ring, circle, or surrounding radiance of light represented about the figure of a sacred person
golden bull: a Byzantine imperial document bearing the monarch's golden seal (bulla), frequently used in granting privileges
Greek cross: a cross consisting of an upright crossed in the middle by a horizontal of the same length
haratsi: a poll tax paid by non-Muslims
headpiece: an ornament at the head of a page, chapter, etc.
hegumen: the head of a monastery; abbot
heirmologion: a codex containing heirmoi (sing. heirmos, q.v.)
heirmos: the leading stanza of a kontakion (q.v.)
heortologarion: a codex containing all the chants to be sung on the Great Feasts of the Church
herbal: a pharmaceutical work containing descriptions of herbs and analyses of their therapeutic properties
Hesychasm: the doctrines and practice of the Hesychasts, mystics who in silence devote themselves to inner recollection and secret prayer, the culmination of their mystical experience being direct contact with God through the vision of the Divine Uncreated Light
hesychasterion: a hermitage proper, found in some lonely spot
hieromonach: see hieromonk
hieromonk: a monk who is also a priest
himation: a garment consisting of a rectangular piece of cloth thrown over the left shoulder and wrapped about the body
historiated capital: a two-zone Corinthian capital on which the upper zone of acanthus leaves is replaced by animals, birds, or human or divine figures
Holy Community (Iera Kinotis): the administrative authority comprising representatives from the twenty sovereign monasteries
homilies: manuscripts containing homilies or orations of the Church Fathers —John Chrysostom, Gregory the Theologian, Basil the Great and others— which are read out at assemblies of the monks and especially in the refectory during meals
horologion: a codex containing the daily offices of the Church
hyperpyron: a Byzantine coin
hypostasis: a subsidiary ornamental sign in Byzantine musical notation
hypothesis: a summary of a text
iconostasis: a screen, with doors, which divides the nave from the sanctuary and on which icons are placed in a fixed order
idiomelon: an heirmos (q.v.) with its own individual melody
idiorrhythmic: the idiorrhythmic monasteries are directed by two annually changed trustees, helped by the Assembly of ten or fifteen leading monks (proοstameni), whose decisions they enforce and from among whom they are chosen. Individuals retain personal property, eat their meals in their cells, and are left to their own judgement concerning personal austerity.
illuminated manuscript: a manuscript which, apart from text, also contains miniature paintings
Imperial Door: the central door leading from the narthex to the naos (qq.v.)
initial letter: a large letter beginning a text, a division, or a paragraph
Iverians: the mediaeval name of the Georgians
Jesus Prayer: 'Lord Jesus Christ, Son of God, have mercy on me a sinner'; also termed Prayer of the Heart
kaza: an administrative district or province
kalophonikon sticherarion: a sticherarion (q.v.) containing stichera (sing. sticheron, q.v.) set in the ornate style termed 'kalophonic'
kalyva: see kalyve
kalyve: a monastic dwelling, usually small, sometimes with a chapel attached, and either independent or belonging to a skete (q.v.)
katepano: a military commander of select cavalry units and of the province where they were stationed
kathisma: a small habitation, usually near the parent monastery, where one monk dwells alone
katholikon: the central church of a monastery
katzi: a type of censer held by a handle rather than swung by chains
kellion: a spacious monastic dwelling with a small chapel, inhabited by three or more semi-independent monks who till the land
kemeria: arched structures over the despotikes eikones (q.v.)
ketabedes (sing. ketabes): rectangular sections on a wooden iconostasis (q.v.) above and below the despotikes
eikones (q.v.); the lower ketabes is also called the 'overpanel'.
kladi: the low pediment on top of the iconostasis (q.v.) from the top of which rises the crucifix
kollyba: see kolyva
kolyva: boiled wheat with sugar distributed at memorial services in commemoration of the dead
kontakarion: a codex containing a collection of kontakia (sing. kontakion, q.v.)
kontakion: a musical composition consisting of 18-24 stanzas all modelled on a leading stanza (heirmos, q.v.)
kral: the title of the Serbian rulers
kratema: an independent melodic unit used to prolong a hymn and consisting of teretismata (meaningless syllables, such as terirem, tenena, tororon)
kratematarion: a codex containing a collection of kratemata (sing. kratema, q.v.) arranged according to the eight modes.
kritis: official who fulfilled the functions of both judge and tax collector in a Byzantine theme or province
kyriakon: the central church of a skete (q.v.)
Ladder of Paradise: an ascetic work, probably by John Scholasticus (525-600), of which many manuscripts survive
lampadarios: the leader of the left-hand choir in a church
Latin (Passion) cross: an upright or vertical bar crossed near the top by a shorter horizontal bar
lavra: a cluster of cells or caves for hermits, with a church and sometimes a refectory at the centre
lite: the inner narthex (q.v.) of a church
Liturgy of the Presanctified: the liturgy in which the consecrated host of the previous liturgy is used logofetel: the subordinate to the logothete (q.v.) in the divan (q.v.) of Moldavia and Wallachia
logothete: the official responsible for overseeing the royal chancellery and drawing up golden bulls (q.v.); the keeper of the royal seal
lypira: small icons of the Virgin and St John flanking the crucifix on top of the iconostasis (q.v.)
magister: an honorific title
maοstor: a composer of church music who is often also an accomplished singer
mandorla: an, often pointed, oval surrounding the figure of a sacred person in iconography mantling (also lambrequin): the drapery of a coat of arms
mathema: a musical composition in which stichera idiomela (sing. sticheron idiomelon, q.v.) are interspersed with kratemata (sing. kratema, q.v.) and sung in the ornate style termed 'kalophonic'
mathematarion: a codex containing a collection of mathemata (sing. mathema, q.v.)
Megale Mesi: the seat of the Holy Community (q.v.), Karyes
Megali Ekklesia: the 'Great Church of Christ', the church of the Patriarchate, which was also the administrative centre of religious life in the Byzantine capital
megaloschemos: a monk of the highest grade, distinguished by his habit and pledged to a stricter degree of asceticism and a greater amount of time spent in prayer megas droungarios: a senior judge in Constantinople
megas primikerios: an honorific title
menaion: one of twelve liturgical books (one for each month), which contain the variable parts of the Divine Office for the immovable feasts; the first in the series is for September, when the Greek Orthodox ecclesiastical year begins.
menologion: a book containing accounts of the lives and martyrdoms of the saints, arranged according to the ecclesiastical calendar
menology: see menologion
Menteshe: a fourteenth-century piratical Turkish emirate, based in Miletos
metochion: a dependency of a monastery
'modern': ideologically oriented towards the Europe of the Enlightenment
modius: a unit of both volume and area; while its value was extremely variable, it usually corresponded to about 960 square metres or, as a measure of volume (especially for grain), about a quarter of a bushel
naos: the main body of a church
narthex: a western portico or vestibule between the main entrance and the naos (q.v.) nomophylax: a Byzantine official whose job was to maintain the laws of the state or the Patriarchate
octateuch: a manuscript containing the first eight books of the Old Testament: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges and Ruth
octoechos: a collection of offices arranged for the eight ecclesiastical modes and used for periods of eight weeks
oikonomos: a steward; his function was to administer the financial affairs of the institution he served
a steward; his function was to administer the financial affairs of the institution he served
oka: a Turkish unit of weight corresponding to about 1.3 kg
oke: see oka
oktoechos: see octoechos
omologon: a document agreed between the Patriarchal Synod and the Athonite Holy Community (q.v.) recognising custom as having the force of law in the community
omophorion: the distinctive vestment of bishops of the Eastern Church corresponding to the pallium of the Western Church, but made in two forms and worn in one form or the other by all bishops during the celebration of liturgical offices
Oraia Pyle: see Royal Door
Orthodoxy, Feast of: celebrated on the first Sunday of Lent by the Eastern Orthodox Church to commemorate the restoration of icons to the churches (843) and the end of the long iconoclast controversy
orthros: the morning office, corresponding to lauds in the West
paharnic: an official in the divan (q.v.) of Moldavia and Wallachia appointed to the Prince's court; his duties involved keeping the wine cellar stocked and tasting the wine, and later managing the royal vineyards, collecting the wine tax, and judging cases connected with the vineyards.
panaghiarion: a paten with a representation of the Virgin, used in the liturgy for the Feast of the Dormition pansevastos sevastos: an honorific title
papadike: a late Byzantine anthology of musical settings, both simple and ornate, for hymns, psalms, and other chants used in the liturgy and daily offices
paracletice: a book containing the sung services and canons to the Virgin Mary for each day of the week
parekklesion: a chapel flanking the sanctuary, the narthex, or both; a chapel attached to the individual cells of a skete, where the monks say the daily offices
parekklisi: see parekklesion
parissia: a type of requiem service
paschalia: tables in which the date of Easter is calculated for a certain number of years in the future
paterikon: a collection of sayings and accounts by the Fathers of the Church patriarchal cross: a Latin cross having a second, shorter crosspiece above the customary one
pentekostarion: a codex containing the offices from Easter Sunday to the first Sunday after Pentecost
peopled scroll: an ornament consisting of a scroll or tendril enriched with figures of animals
phelonion: a priestly vestment similar to a chasuble
phiale: a, usually marble, receptacle for holy water, in the form of either a small, portable bowl or a large canopied basin in the monastery courtyard
Philoxenia of Abraham: the hospitality (philoxenia) shown by Abraham to God when He appeared by the Oak of Mamre in the form of three men (Genesis 18:1-18); an icon of this
podea: a veil hung directly beneath a permanent icon (as on the iconostasis (q.v.)) and usually bearing a repetition of its iconographic theme polycyclic manuscript: a manuscript in which the subject-matter of the illustrations is drawn from more than one source
praxapostolos: a manuscript containing the Acts of the Apostles, the Epistles of St Paul and the Catholic Epistles
pronaos: an open vestibule before the naos (q.v.)
pronoia: a system for subsidising the army and the civil service, by which the beneficiary, known as the pronoiarios, was granted the right to claim directly from citizens debts owed by them to the state
proskomidi: a small niche within the bema (q.v.), containing the table (also called the proskomidi) on which the elements are prepared; the act of preparating the elements
proskynetarion: a pilgrims' guide to the Holy Land, principally its Christian monuments
prosomoiarion: a codex, or part of an heirmologion (q.v.), which contains the prosomoia stichera (troparia (sing. troparion, q.v.) modelled on already existing melodies) arranged by mode
prothesis: a small chapel or apse, in which the oblation table stands, on the north side of the sanctuary
protopsaltes: the leader of the right-hand choir in a church
Protos: the primate, the elected head of the monastic state of Mount Athos, who wields administrative and judicial authority within the territory and represents it in its relations with the outside world
psalter: a Book of Psalms, the Greek version of which contains 151 psalms, most of which have been ascribed to King David
pseudosarcophagus: a built coffin, three sides of which are enclosed by an arcosolium (q.v.), the front being closed by a marble slab with relief decoration; it resembles, but is not, a monolithic sarcophagus.
pyle: a veil hung across the low gate in the Royal Door
quaternion: a quire of four sheets folding in two, producing eight leaves or sixteen pages
Rashka orthography: a form of Serbian orthography, typical of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries, which represents the earliest rendering of the mediaeval Serbian dialect. Its main characteristics are that it turns the Old Slavonic nasals into vowels, generally uses the semi-vowels correctly, and also uses the letters ja and je. Rashka is one of the oldest centres of Serbian power.
recto: the front of a folio (e.g. 77r = the front of folio 77)
Resava orthography: a form of fourteenth-century to fifteenth-century orthography associated with the work of Constantine the Philosopher and influenced by the reforms of Euthymius of Trnovo. Its main characteristics are that it turns the semi-vowels of Slavonic into vowels, and uses accents (under the influence of Greek models) and Greek letters.
rhipidia: in the early Christian churches, these fans, initially of fine cloth or peacocks' feathers, were gently waved by the deacons to keep flies away from the communion table; now a purely ritual accessory, they are generally made of silver and decorated with six-winged seraphim.
rinceau: an ornamental foliate or floral motif
roll: a parchment manuscript rolled around a wooden or bone rod; used mainly in the Byzantine era in place of the scroll, which is usually associated with papyrus
rotae sericae: an ornament consisting of a series of roundels linked by knots Royal Door (or Beautiful Door): the central door in the chancel screen or iconostasis (q.v.) rumβn (pl. rumβni): a dependent villager in Wallachia
sacristy: a special room in which the monastery treasures or relics are kept; a treasury
sakkos: a liturgical vestment resembling a dalmatic and worn by a bishop during the liturgy
seimenis: an Athonite policeman
semantron: a wooden or metal bar used instead of a bell in Orthodox churches and monasteries
semi-uncial: a form of writing between uncial (q.v.) and minuscule Serbo-Moldavian orthography: a later (fifteenth century onwards) form of Serbian orthography with Wallacho-Moldavian elements
skete: a smaller community living under monastic rule and dependent on one of the sovereign monasteries
Slavophile: a member of a nineteenth-century Russian intellectual movement that wanted Russia's future development to be based on values and institutions derived from the country's early history and was opposed to the country's 'Europeanisation'
stanjen (pl. stanjeni): a unit of surface measurement in Wallachia and Moldavia, approximately equal to two square metres stauropegion (adj. stauropegic): a church or monastery exempt from the jurisdiction of the local bishop and directly subject to the highest authority of the territorial church
sticherarion: a codex containing the stichera (sing. sticheron, q.v.) for orthros (q.v.) and vespers services throughout the year
sticheron: a form of hymn sung during orthros (q.v.) and vespers after a verse of a psalm (usually one of the last three to six verses)
sticheron idiomelon: a sticheron (q.v.) with its own unique melody
strategos: a military and civilian governor of a Byzantine theme or province
Studion: a large coenobitic monastery in Constantinople
synaxarion: a short account of a saint's life or a feast read at orthros (q.v.); a book containing these accounts, arranged according to the ecclesiastical calendar
synaxis: a meeting of the representatives of the Athonite monasteries held at Karyes usually three times a year (Christmas, Easter, and the Feast of the Dormition of the Virgin on August 15)
synodeia: a group of monks living under the tutelage of an elder, or spiritual father, in the kalyve of a skete (qq.v.)
synodia: see synodeia
synodicon: a letter, decree, or other document emanating from a synod in the Eastern Orthodox Church; specifically, an instrument of appointment to a high ecclesiastical office (as of a bishop)
taboullarios: a Byzantine notary
templon: see iconostasis
tetraevangelon: a book containing the continuous text of the Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John
theoretikon: a codex containing theories of the art of music
theotokion: a troparion (q.v.) in honour of the Theotokos (q.v.)
Theotokos: the Virgin Mary, Mother of God
timar: a type of fief granted by the Sultan
Tragos: the first Charter, or Rule, of Mount Athos, written on parchment made from goatskin, hence the name (tragos = 'goat')
triodion: a codex containing the offices for the ten weeks before Easter, i.e. from the Sunday of the Pharisee and the Publican up to and including Holy Saturday
trisagion: a short hymn consisting of the words 'Holy God, Holy and Strong, Holy and Immortal', sung three or more times
troparion: a short hymn consisting of a single stanza Twelve Great Feasts: Annunciation, Nativity, Epiphany, Presentation of Christ in the Temple, Transfiguration, Birth of the Virgin, Presentation of the Virgin, Dormition of the Virgin, Exaltation of the Cross, Palm Sunday, Ascension, Pentecost
typikarion: a room at one side of the sanctuary apse in which the ecclesiastical books, such as the typikon (q.v.), are kept
typikaris: the monk in charge of church ritual
typikon: a codex (q.v.) containing the rules and rubrics for church services throughout the year; a codex containing the rules and regulations of a monastery
tzeremes: a monetary fine
ughi: a Hungarian gold coin; in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries one ughi was equal to 1.73 lei, 300 bani (q.v.), 1.66 thalers.
uncial: of or written in majuscule writing with rounded unjoined letters
vakif: religious endowments granted by the Ottoman authorities
verso: the back of a folio (e.g. 77v = the back of folio 77)
voevode: see voivode
voivode: the former title of the ruling princes in Moldavia and Wallachia; a local governor; an administrative official whose duties included tax collection
vornic: an official in the divan (q.v.) of Wallachia and Moldavia responsible for overseeing the Royal Court; he also enjoyed extensive judicial authority.
zambitis: a policeman
zeteia: a collection on behalf of a monastery, usually effected by a group of two or three monks

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